Immediations Style Sheet
Spelling: British, rather than American, words and spelling should be used (e.g. centre, colour, programme, analyse, pavement; not center, program, analyze, sidewalk).
Dates: Dates follow European style: e.g. 26 March 1688. Cardinal numbers should not be abbreviated with ‘th’ or ‘st’. Numbers that identify centuries should be spelt out and hyphenated if used as adjectives (i.e. ‘in the nineteenth century’ or ‘in nineteenth-century art’, but not ‘in the 19th century’). Numbers that identify decades do not take an apostrophe and can be abbreviated in the second instance (i.e. ‘1970s’ or ‘in the 1970s and ‘80s’, but not ‘1970’s’). Inclusive dates are given as 1914-18, not 1914-8 nor 1914-1918. Italian dates are italicised and capitalised when used as a noun (i.e. ‘in the Quattrocento’ or ‘in quattrocento art’).
Numbers: Generally all numbers under a hundred should be spelt out. Exceptions include page numbers, dates and round numbers over a hundred (e.g. ‘More than a thousand copies are known to exist’, rather than ‘More than a 1000 copies are known to exist’). Commas should not be used to separate thousands (i.e. 40 123 not 40,123). Roman numerals should be converted to Arabic, unless citing original pagination. Page numbers should be given in full, e.g.: pp.1-2; pp.53-54; pp.203-204; pp.25-254.
Quotations from Foreign Languages: All quotations should be translated into English in the body of the text. Where necessary the original text can be provided in the endnotes, unless a short non-English phrase is necessary in the text. In this case, it should be cited in the original and immediately followed by a translation in brackets; e.g. ‘coram papa (in the presence of the pope)’. Thereafter it can be used in the original. Passages of exception length should appear in an Appendix. Citations from non-Roman alphabets should be transliterated. Direct quotations of early texts should try preserve the spelling, punctuation or abbreviations of the original with any alterations explained.
Quotations: Quotations within the text should be marked with single quotation marks. Quotations within quotations are given in speech, or double quotation, marks (“). Punctuation should be placed outside quotation marks. Quotations exceeding four lines should be indented, without quotation marks. Elipses should be marked in the text with square brackets and three dots […] and should be avoided at the beginning or end of a quotation. Lines of poetry are separated by slashes (/) or double slashes (//) for stanzas.
Italics: Italics, rather
than underlying or bold-type, are used for emphasis. Any such
emphasis in a quote should be indicated as such in the related
endnote (e.g. See Smith, 1936, at n.36 above, p.22, my italics.)
Any foreign words that appear in the text, but are not directly
quoted, should appear in italics. Foreign place names, locations
or proper nouns are not italicised.
References: All references
appear as endnotes with no separate bibliography. References
should be kept to a minimum and should not introduce additional
information. On the first reference to a work, it should appear
in full as follows:
Books: Graham, E., The Imagery of Proust,
Oxford, 1966. Give the full title, including any subtitle.
It is not necessary to cite the publisher. Volumes should be
abbreviated to vol. (singular) and vols. (plural) and their
number should be indicated, e.g. Vasari, G., Le vite de'
più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori,
G. Milanesi (ed.), 9 vols., Florence, 1878-85.
Articles: Ames-Lewis, F., ‘Art History of Stilkritik? Donatello’s Bronze David reconsidered’, Art History, vol.2, no.2, June 1979, pp.139-155. Book reviews follow this format, except that they substitute the title with, for example, Review of ‘The Florentine Tondo’ by Roberta Olson.
Book Section: Eisenbichler, K., ‘The
Acquisition of Art by a Florentine Youth Confraternity: The
Case of the Arcangelo Raffaello’, in D. C. Ahl and B.
Wisch (eds.), Confraternities and the Visual Arts in Renaissance
Italy: Ritual, Spectacle, Image, Cambridge, 2000, pp.102-116.
Thesis: Campbell, C., Re-visioning Antiquity:
Domestic Paintings, Manuscript Compendia and the Experience
of the Ancient Past in Fifteenth Century Florence, PhD
thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London,
Subsequent references are abbreviated to:
See Smith at n.36 above, p.22.
In the event that the note referenced (in this case n.36) contained more than one author by that name, or several works by the same author are mentioned in the note, or the author has published more than one work in any year and both are mentioned in the note, then the following solutions can be adopted:
See L.R. Smith at n.36 above, p.22.
See Smith, 1936, at n.36 above, p.22.
See Smith, 1936a, at n.36 above, p.22.
Op. cit., loc. cit., idem. and eadem. should not be used, although when referring to a work cited in the previous endnote, Ibid. must be used.
There is no space between the abbreviations
for note or page (e.g. p.56 or p.208 n.12). ‘pp.’ and ‘nn.’ should
be used in the plural. ‘cf.’, ‘f.’ or ‘ff.’ should
not be used. When listing the divisions of a complex work,
they should be spelt out in full for clarification at the
first citation: e.g. ‘book 3, canto 3, lines 22-26’;
subsequently ‘3.3.22-26’. For manuscripts ‘recto’, ‘verso’ and ‘folio’ can
be abbreviated to ‘r’, ‘v’ and ‘fol’.
All multiple authors should be included up
to a maximum of four, after which et al. should be
used. Only the surname of the first-listed author, precedes
his or her initials (e.g. Smith, G. and R. M. Williams, Another
Book […]). Editors are abbreviated to ed. (single)
or eds. (plural); translator to trans.
Use the upper case in titles except for conjunctions, articles, pronouns and prepositions. Always capitalise the first word after the
colon in a subtitle. For French titles, capitalise only the
first word (even if this is an article) and proper nouns.
Exhibition catalogues should be shortened to
exh. cat. and should included the location and date of the
exhibition. In the event that a catalogue does not have an
obvious author, subsequent references can be abbreviated to
a shortened title: e.g. See Turks at n.23 above, p.55.
Where more than one location has the same
name, this should be clarified. In citing American cities or
place names, use the standard postal style for identifying
the state. In the event that none is given, the town will be
assumed to be European (i.e. Cambridge alone will indicate
the town in England; Cambridge, MA, for the US city.) Standard
English names for foreign cities should be used (e.g. Florence,
not Firenze) and no more than two places of publication should
Publication dates should be that of the work
consulted. In the event of later editions or facsimiles, if
the original publication date is important to the argument
it should follow the citation in brackets: e.g. Vasari, G., Le
vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori,
G. Milanesi (ed.), 9 vols., Florence, 1878-85 (second edition
published in 1568).
should be kept to a minimum and precede the endnotes.
Other: i.e., e.g. and etc.
should be avoided. When separating a word or sub-clause with
a dash, the em-dash (–) should be used – with a
space – between the words.
Colons and semi-colons should be used sparingly.
Truncations are followed by a full stop, but
abbreviations are not, unless the abbreviation is the plural
of a truncation (e.g. ‘Mr’ is not followed by a
full stop by ‘Prof.’ is; ‘ed.’ is followed
by a full stop, as is its plural ‘eds.’). ‘Saint’ should
be spelt out. Acronyms should be spelt out in the first
instance, with the acronym in brackets (e.g. ‘The United
Nations (UN) introduced […]’). Thereafter they
can be abbreviated.
Scholars’ names should always be cited
in full in the text when they are first mentioned, thereafter
just the surname will surface; e.g. ‘According to Dale
Kent […]’ and subsequently ‘According to
Common errors: Sentences should not end on a preposition. With the exception of ‘and’, all conjunctions should be preceded by a comma.